Reliability and Construct Validity of the Malay Version of the Cyclist Motivation Instrument (CMI)


  • Cheah Whye Lian Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Helmy Hazmi Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Emannual Randy Razali Lukas Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Irvy Eleanor Joannes Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Jaeverny Henry Barry Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Luther Lim Universiti Malaysia Sarawak


Cycling, motivating factors


With the increase interest in cycling, there is a need to understand what motivate cyclist to cycle. The Cyclist Motivation Instrument (CMI) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure the motivation factors elsewhere. The present study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the Malay version of the CMI among cyclists in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. A total of 180 cyclists consented and participated in the study and were administered the Malay version of the CMI. Back translation method was used to ensure the face validity of the questionnaire. Reliability was determined using Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency for all components was satisfactory with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.799 to 0.880 and therefore confirmed the adequacy of these components. Exploratory factor analysis using Principal Component Analysis with a Varimax rotation showed 32 items were loaded into six factors orthogonal soluation with 67.8% of the variance. In conclusion, all components of CMI were found to be reliable and valid for determining factors motivating cyclists to cycle. Further analyses using confirmatory factor analysis and convergent validity would be ideal.


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Author Biographies

Cheah Whye Lian, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Senior lecturer

Helmy Hazmi, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Senior lecturer



How to Cite

Whye Lian, C., Hazmi, H., Razali Lukas, E. R., Joannes, I. E., Henry Barry, J., & Lim, L. (2014). Reliability and Construct Validity of the Malay Version of the Cyclist Motivation Instrument (CMI). Journal of Science and Cycling, 3(3), 3-8. Retrieved from



Original articles