Adaptation and validation of a test to measure Greek elementary students’ basic cycling skills


  • Ioannis Papanikolaou BIKE Sale & Academy, Kastamonis 144, 14235, Athens
  • Manolis Adamakis Sports Studies and Physical Education School of Education University College Cork Ireland



Cycling, skills, test, validity, children, gender differences, cycling experience


The aim of this study was to adapt a previously developed test to gain a detailed insight into the cycling skills of Greek children and examine the impact that gender, age and cycling experience have on cycling skills. Students (n=80) from a local elementary school in Attica region (Greece) took the adapted cycling skills test consisting of 12 test stations. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the factor structure of the cycling test. Descriptive statistics were performed on children’s cycling skill scores. Furthermore, independent sample t-tests and Pearson r correlations were executed to evaluate individual correlates of cycling skills. Two factors were extracted: the ‘during cycling skills’ and the ‘attention/handling cycling skills’ factor. Most children faced difficulties for skills that required more advanced attention skills and while cycling over obstacles. No significant differences in separate factors, as well as the overall cycling skill, were noted between boys and girls. Significant correlations were observed between years of cycling experience and cycling skills, while age was not correlated to these factors. The 12-item test battery adapted in the present study is suitable for the evaluation of cycling skills of Greek elementary students. Implications of the current research are further discussed.


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How to Cite

Papanikolaou, I., & Adamakis, M. (2019). Adaptation and validation of a test to measure Greek elementary students’ basic cycling skills. Journal of Science and Cycling, 8(3), 9-17.



Original articles